Cholecystokinin Plays a Novel Protective Role in Diabetic Kidney Through Anti-inflammatory Actions on Macrophage: Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Cholecystokinin.
Diabetes 2012 Feb 22; In press
Miyamoto S, Shikata K, Miyasaka K, Okada S, Sasaki M, Kodera R, Hirota D, Kajitani N, Takatsuka T, Kataoka HU, Nishishita S, Sato C, Funakoshi A, Nishimori H, Uchida HA, Ogawa D, Makino H
Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.
Inflammatory process is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this article, we show that cholecystokinin (CCK) is expressed in the kidney and exerts renoprotective effects through its anti-inflammatory actions. DNA microarray showed that CCK was upregulated in the kidney of diabetic wild-type (WT) mice but not in diabetic intracellular adhesion molecule-1 knockout mice. We induced diabetes in CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) and CCK-2R double-knockout (CCK-1R(-/-),-2R(-/-)) mice, and furthermore, we performed a bone marrow transplantation study using CCK-1R(-/-) mice to determine the role of CCK-1R on macrophages in the diabetic kidney. Diabetic CCK-1R(-/-),-2R(-/-) mice revealed enhanced albuminuria and inflammation in the kidney compared with diabetic WT mice. In addition, diabetic WT mice with CCK-1R(-/-) bone marrow-derived cells developed more albuminuria than diabetic CCK-1R(-/-) mice with WT bone marrow-derived cells. Administration of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S) ameliorated albuminuria, podocyte loss, expression of proinflammatory genes, and infiltration of macrophages in the kidneys of diabetic rats. Furthermore, CCK-8S inhibited both expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and chemotaxis in cultured THP-1 cells. These results suggest that CCK suppresses the activation of macrophage and expression of proinflammatory genes in diabetic kidney. Our findings may provide a novel strategy of therapy for the early stage of diabetic nephropathy.